自动化运维工具SaltStack安装部署教程

一、saltstack简介

1、简介

SaltStack是一个服务器基础架构集中化管理平台,具备配置管理、远程执行、监控等功能,一般可以理解为简化版的puppet和加强版的func。SaltStack基于Python语言实现,结合轻量级消息队列(ZeroMQ)与Python第三方模块(Pyzmq、PyCrypto、Pyjinjia2、python-msgpack和PyYAML等)构建。

通过部署SaltStack环境,我们可以在成千上万台服务器上做到批量执行命令,根据不同业务特性进行配置集中化管理、分发文件、采集服务器数据、操作系统基础及软件包管理等,SaltStack是运维人员提高工作效率、规范业务配置与操作的利器。

2、master和minion的认证

在minion机器上启动salt后,会生成两把密钥,minion.pem(private key)和 minion.pub(public key),同时将minion.pub发送给给master。master接受到minion.pub后,可以通过salt-key 命令选择是否接受该公钥,保存在/etc/salt/pki/master/minions。这时候,master就可以发送相关指令到minion机器上了。


二、salt安装

官方文档:https://docs.saltstack.com/en/latest/topics/installation/index.html

本次安装采用yum 安装

1、环境:

Salt should run on any Unix-like platform so long as the dependencies are met.

Python 2.6 >= 2.6 <3.0
msgpack-python - High-performance message interchange format
YAML - Python YAML bindings
Jinja2 - parsing Salt States (configurable in the master settings)
MarkupSafe - Implements a XML/HTML/XHTML Markup safe string for Python
apache-libcloud - Python lib for interacting with many of the popular cloud service providers using a unified API
Requests - HTTP library
Tornado - Web framework and asynchronous networking library
futures - Backport of the concurrent.futures package from Python 3.2
Depending on the chosen Salt transport, ZeroMQ or RAET, dependencies vary:

ZeroMQ:
ZeroMQ >= 3.2.0
pyzmq >= 2.2.0 - ZeroMQ Python bindings
PyCrypto - The Python cryptography toolkit
RAET:
libnacl - Python bindings to libsodium
ioflo - The flo programming interface raet and salt-raet is built on
RAET - The worlds most awesome UDP protocol
  • master 的环境
  • root@rht6-mysql ~ # cat /etc/redhat-release 
    Red Hat Enterprise Linux Server release 6.7 (Santiago)
    
  • minion 的环境
  • [root@m-node1 ~]# cat /etc/redhat-release 
    Red Hat Enterprise Linux Server release 6.2 (Santiago)
    

    2、安装salt-master

  • 安装相关的源
  • 本次需要安装epel源和163的源

    wget https://dl.fedoraproject.org/pub/epel/epel-release-latest-6.noarch.rpm
    rpm -ivh epel-release-latest-6.noarch.rpm 
    wget http://mirrors.163.com/.help/CentOS6-Base-163.repo
    sed -i 's/$releasever/6/g' /etc/yum.repo.d/CentOS6-Base-163.repo 
    yum clean all && yum makecache
    yum repolist
    
    yum install -y salt-master
    
  • 启动master
  • /etc/init.d/salt-master start
    
    

    3、安装salt-minion

  • 和master一样进行配置yum源。
  • wget https://dl.fedoraproject.org/pub/epel/epel-release-latest-6.noarch.rpm
    rpm -ivh epel-release-latest-6.noarch.rpm 
    sed -i 's/https/http/g' /etc/yum.repo.d/epel.repo 
    ##### 这步需要替换https为http的原因是redhat 6.2的ca-certificates为2010.63-3,需要升级,否则就会报错。
    
    
    wget http://mirrors.163.com/.help/CentOS6-Base-163.repo
    sed -i 's/$releasever/6/g' /etc/yum.repo.d/CentOS6-Base-163.repo 
    yum clean all && yum makecache
    yum repolist
    
  • 更新python
  • 由于我minion机子上的版本为redhat 6.2,因此python版本不符合要求,需要进行更新,否则会报如下错误

     file xxx.pyc from install of python-libs-2.6.6-66.el6_8.x86_64 conflicts with file from package python-2.6.6-29.el6.x86_64
    
    
    yum update python 
    
  • 修改配置文件
  • 修改minion的配置文件,设置其master的ip地址或者hostname。

    [root@m-node1 ~]# cat /etc/hosts
    127.0.0.1   localhost localhost.localdomain localhost4 localhost4.localdomain4
    ::1         localhost localhost.localdomain localhost6 localhost6.localdomain6
    10.0.0.6 rht6-mysql
    

    修改文件 /etc/salt/minion

    # Set the location of the salt master server. If the master server cannot be
    # resolved, then the minion will fail to start.
      master: rht6-mysql
    

    这里注意master前面2个空格,且冒号后面一个 空格,否则会报错

  • 启动minion
  • /etc/init.d/salt-minion start
    

    4、在master选择接受minion

    
    root@rht6-mysql ~ # salt-key -L
    Accepted Keys:
    Denied Keys:
    Unaccepted Keys:
    m-node1
    Rejected Keys:
    root@rht6-mysql ~ # salt-key -a m-node1
    The following keys are going to be accepted:
    Unaccepted Keys:
    m-node1
    Proceed? [n/Y] y
    Key for minion m-node1 accepted.
    

    选择接受m-node1


    三、简单使用

    此时就可以发送各种命令了,使用方法如下

    Usage: salt [options] '' [arguments]

    我先演示下基本的

  • a.查询是否存活
  • root@rht6-mysql ~ # salt '*' test.ping
    m-node1:
        True 
    
  • b.发送主机的命令
  • 
    root@rht6-mysql ~ # salt '*' cmd.run "du -sm /root"
    m-node1:
        388 /root
    

    参考资料:自动化运维工具SaltStack详细部署

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